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1990-2019青海省滑坡崩塌泥石流灾害时空分布特征

魏正发 曹小岩 张俊才 应忠敏 严慧珺 魏赛拉加

魏正发, 曹小岩, 张俊才, 应忠敏, 严慧珺, 魏赛拉加. 1990-2019青海省滑坡崩塌泥石流灾害时空分布特征[J]. 中国地质灾害与防治学报. doi: 10.16031/j.cnki.issn.1003-8035.2021.0000-00
引用本文: 魏正发, 曹小岩, 张俊才, 应忠敏, 严慧珺, 魏赛拉加. 1990-2019青海省滑坡崩塌泥石流灾害时空分布特征[J]. 中国地质灾害与防治学报. doi: 10.16031/j.cnki.issn.1003-8035.2021.0000-00
Zhengfa Wei, Xiaoyan Cao, Juncai Zhang, Zhongmin Ying, Huijun Yan, Sailajia Wei. Temporal and Spatial Characteristics of landslide, rockfall and debris flow Disasters in Qinghai Province during the period from 1990 to 2019[J]. The Chinese Journal of Geological Hazard and Control. doi: 10.16031/j.cnki.issn.1003-8035.2021.0000-00
Citation: Zhengfa Wei, Xiaoyan Cao, Juncai Zhang, Zhongmin Ying, Huijun Yan, Sailajia Wei. Temporal and Spatial Characteristics of landslide, rockfall and debris flow Disasters in Qinghai Province during the period from 1990 to 2019[J]. The Chinese Journal of Geological Hazard and Control. doi: 10.16031/j.cnki.issn.1003-8035.2021.0000-00

1990-2019青海省滑坡崩塌泥石流灾害时空分布特征

doi: 10.16031/j.cnki.issn.1003-8035.2021.0000-00
基金项目: 青海省应用基础研究项目(2019-ZJ-7053);青海省青藏高原北部地质过程与矿产资源重点实验室专项基金(2019-KZ-03)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    魏正发(1993-),男,青海互助人,本科,工程师,主要从事地灾调查与防治研究工作。E-mail:1522497033@qq.com

Temporal and Spatial Characteristics of landslide, rockfall and debris flow Disasters in Qinghai Province during the period from 1990 to 2019

  • 摘要: 近年来,受全球气候变暖和城市扩张进程中的人类社会经济活动影响,青海省突发性、局地性地质灾害事件频发,为积极应对地质灾害严峻形势,保障人民生活生产安全、巩固防灾减灾成果、提出科学合理的应对措施。本文以1990—2019年青海省滑坡崩塌泥石流灾害为研究对象,通过数理统计,分析研究了近30年青海省滑坡崩塌泥石流灾害发育特征、时空分布规律及主要引发因素。结果表明:①发灾规模多为小型,发灾类型以滑坡为主。②时间上,多发生于5—10月;空间上,主要发生在地形复杂的青东地区西宁市和海东市境内。③降雨和开挖边坡是主要引发因素。④近年来,滑坡崩塌泥石流灾害增加趋势明显。研究结果对于今后一段时期青海省地质灾害防范工作具有指导和借鉴意义。
  • 图  1  崩滑流发生起数与伤亡人数和经济损失对比图

    Figure  1.  Comparison of the number of landslide, rockfall with debris flow disasters casualties economic losses

    图  2  1990—2019年青海省滑坡崩塌泥石流分布图

    Figure  2.  Distribution map of landslide, rockfall and debris flow disasters in Qinghai Province from 1990 to 2019

    图  3  各年汛期与非汛期滑坡崩塌泥石流灾害数量占比图

    Figure  3.  Map of landslide, rockfall and debris flow disasters in flood season and non-flood season in each year

    图  4  多年月均滑坡崩塌泥石流灾害直方图

    Figure  4.  Monthly average histogram of landslide, rockfall and debris flow disasters over many years

    图  5  历年因开挖斜坡引发滑坡崩塌泥石流灾害数量图

    Figure  5.  Number of landslide, rockfall and debris flow disasters caused by slope excavation in past years

    图  6  多年年均降雨量与降雨引发崩滑流灾害关系图

    Figure  6.  The relationship between annual rainfall and landslide, rockfall and debris flow disasters caused by rainfall for many years

    图  7  多年月均降雨量与降雨引发崩滑流灾害关系图

    Figure  7.  The relationship between the average monthly rainfall over many years and the rockfall, landslide and debris flow disasters caused by monthly rainfall

    表  1  1990—2019年青海省滑坡崩塌泥石流灾害灾情统计表

    Table  1.   Statistical table of landslide, rockfall and debris flow disasters in Qinghai Province from 1990 to 2019

    灾情
    等级
    崩塌 滑坡 泥石流
    数量/起损失/
    万元
    死人/人伤人/人数量/起 损失/
    万元
    死数/人伤人/人数量/起 损失/
    万元
    死人/人伤人/人
    特大型2632811163 3222.320210 32278.192822
    大型1865.2664 2600726 4073.2142
    中型510567029 3995.7411513 277399
    小型164472.4232020620 2835.2172332691 1266.19553
    合计1728721.6234442656 12653.237814512040390.5855636
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  死亡3人及以上重大滑坡崩塌泥石流灾害事件

    Table  2.   Catastrophic landslide, rockfall and debris flow disasters events with more than 3 deaths

    序号地理位置灾害类型时间规模/方死人伤人经济损失/万元灾情等级
    1西宁市马坊、盐庄泥石流1994/7/5201000912250特大
    2湟中县总寨乡王家山沟口滑坡1994/7/26810007038
    3互助县五十乡泥石流1994/6/141107000120750
    4互助县沙塘川乡崩塌1994/7/1731060066865.2
    5贵德县黄河大桥至尕让乡大磨村泥石流1994/8/29336035185
    6大通县城关镇李家毛滑坡1995/9/6900317
    7湟中县拉沙乡峡口村滑坡1995/6/21800312
    8门源县红山扁子路段崩塌1995/9/611700352828特大
    9湟源县寺寨乡泥石流1995/9/622440001001850特大
    10乐都县中坝乡洪三村滑坡1996/11/11600655
    11贵德县尕让乡阿什贡村泥石流1997/8/59430301053.19特大
    12湟源县巴燕乡下胡丹村滑坡1998/4/1880500.2
    13大通县青林乡柳林滩村崩塌1999/4/19303302
    14西宁市城北区土巷道滑坡1999/7/2120004220
    15民和县巴州乡泥石流1999/8/59004040
    16大通县斜沟乡三村滑坡2000/4/26567411.4
    17大通县西山乡多兰村滑坡2000/6/29270300.2
    18西宁市城东区中庄村大山沟崩塌2004/11/17480403
    19贵德县拉西瓦水电站崩塌2007/7/208008113500特大
    20尖扎县尖扎滩乡幸福村滑坡2007/10/29140.3423
    21西宁市城中区总寨镇元堡子村滑坡2016/7/24110432.5
    22西宁市城东区王家庄绿化管护区滑坡2017/8/8468004081
    23玛沁县拉加镇思肉欠村滑坡2017/8/304500072800
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  滑坡崩塌泥石流灾害按规模统计表

    Table  3.   Statistical table of landslide, rockfall and debris flow disasters by scale

    灾种小型中型大型巨型合计
    崩塌1551133172
    滑坡485975717656
    泥石流7831110120
    合计7181397120948
    占比/%75.714.77.52.1100
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  岩土体类型与滑坡崩塌灾害发育

    Table  4.   Relationship between soil and rock type and landslide, rockfall and debris flow disasters development

    灾种规模岩体 土体合计
    变质岩岩浆岩碳酸盐岩碎屑岩 黄土类土卵砾类土
    崩塌55139 615116
    0002 013
    0000 011
    0000 000
    滑坡40034 28980407
    30335 341388
    30014 21644
    0006 5213
    合计1554130 410108672
      注:表内为2003—2019年数据,期间崩滑675起,此处分析不考虑3起巨型冰崩。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  滑坡崩塌泥石流灾害的地域分布统计

    Table  5.   Geographical distributiong statistic of landslide, rockfall and debris flow disasters

    市州行政区面积/km2崩塌 滑坡 泥石流 合计
    数量/起死人损失/
    万元
    数量/起死人损失/
    万元
    数量/起死人损失/
    万元
    数量/起灾害密度
    起/100km2
    死人损失/
    万元
    西宁市76658626142.522 240513053.17 282319338.08 3544.618410022533.77
    海东市132004771386.607 244144652.972 35195336.585 3262.46974011376.16
    海北州34700833244.45 340604.16 5037 470.135433885.61
    黄南州188239049.05 6251624.875 1021686.75 810.430373360.675
    果洛州763124010 1371320.1 21150.3 190.024981480.4
    海南州460001383568.494 430292.91 27109656.87 830.18041813518.27
    海西州325785200 421000.6 70205 130.004021205.6
    玉树州19117830320.5 162104.45 613980 250.013134404.95
    合计713663172448721.623 6568112653.24 1205640390.59 9480.132818161765.45
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  滑坡崩塌泥石流灾害按地形地貌分区统计

    Table  6.   Statistics of landslide, rockfall and debris flow disasters according to topography and physiognomy

    产业分区地形地貌分区面积/km2人口/
    万人
    人口密度
    人/km2
    崩塌滑坡泥石流合计灾害密度
    起/100km2
    死亡人数受伤
    人数
    经济损失/
    万元
    农业区青东丘陵谷地293584043884137.74141559857852.67391619942141.4312
    牧业区柴达木盆地区2997853805701.27217100.003320205.6
    青北高原山区607003188245.258375500.0824354885.61
    青南高原山区32382011469793.542159231030.0318151914532.804
    合计71366358902578.251726561209480.132818112361765.4452
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  滑坡崩塌泥石流灾害按水系流域统计表

    Table  7.   Statistical table of landslide, rockfall and debris flow disasters by drainage basin

    水系流域崩塌 滑坡泥石流合计死人伤人经济损失/
    万元
    合计合计合计
    外流长江2010364201222004193143224.45
    澜沧江10001430072000210001201.5
    黄河31713421073520917134152051264352922791.0982
    湟水11421011734843298428321180515961387529477.187
    大通河5100631105 2100314353224.45
    内陆黑河1000113115029 110023200641.16
    其它1100240004 5110713201205.6
    合计1551133172485975717656783111012094818112361765.445
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  8  滑坡崩塌泥石流灾害按年度统计表

    Table  8.   Annual statistical table of landslide, rockfall and debris flow disasters

    年度崩塌滑坡泥石流合计死亡
    人数
    受伤
    人数
    经济损失/
    万元
    年度崩塌滑坡泥石流合计

    经济损失/
    万元
    199024062032.025200531922414992
    19912406009.9420066772001251.6122
    19920224206.975200794235416163786.055
    1993181100063.65200861342320253.6
    1994919194737124635.42200932202511714.3
    19952118125136157261.9152010425837221236.5
    199651532388284.7320116121191577.89
    1997076139622671.24201210182303255.08
    1998122581896.220131021637016668.13
    1999385161321977.220145270320042.1
    20001405853.386201562273521746.2
    20010617020.52016731745672510.06
    20024711200428.42017622230123888.5
    2003193131133906.1520182517210207405117.74
    200441422041571.30520191276492301676.642
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  9  多年月平均滑坡崩塌泥石流灾害统计表

    Table  9.   Statistical table of average annual landslide, rockfall and debris flow disasters

    月份崩塌滑坡泥石流合计 
    1月82010
    2月58013
    3月1024034
    4月1343056
    5月1949270
    6月19552296
    7月2810236166
    8月3416946249
    9月1511614145
    10月1152063
    11月827035
    12月29011
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  10  滑坡崩塌泥石流灾害按引发因素统计表

    Table  10.   Statistical table of landslide, rockfall and debris flow disasters by induced factors

    引发因素崩塌滑坡泥石流合计
    工程活动挖坡471460193
    采矿1304
    灌溉141042
    排水0606
    蓄水2305
    填方0303
    合计512020253
    自然因素地震0202
    降雨4434086470
    浸润120021
    风化4123064
    冻融014014
    合计8639986571
      注:上表数据为1996—2019年数据,1996年之前无相关数据。
    下载: 导出CSV
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    [18] 青海省有色地质矿产勘查局八队. 尖扎县措周乡石乃亥村滑坡险情专报[R]. 2018

    Qinghai non-ferrous Geological and Mineral Exploration Bureau team 8. Special Report on landslide hazards in Shinaihai village, Cuozhou Town, Jianzha County [R]. 2018. (in Chinese)
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-02-26
  • 修回日期:  2021-04-16
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-10-22

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