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西藏嘉黎断裂带沿线高位链式地质灾害发育特征分析

万佳威 褚宏亮 李滨 高杨 贺凯 李壮 李艺豪

万佳威, 褚宏亮, 李滨, 高杨, 贺凯, 李壮, 李艺豪. 2021: 西藏嘉黎断裂带沿线高位链式地质灾害发育特征分析. 中国地质灾害与防治学报, 32(3): 51-60. doi: 10.16031/j.cnki.issn.1003-8035.2021.03-07
引用本文: 万佳威, 褚宏亮, 李滨, 高杨, 贺凯, 李壮, 李艺豪. 2021: 西藏嘉黎断裂带沿线高位链式地质灾害发育特征分析. 中国地质灾害与防治学报, 32(3): 51-60. doi: 10.16031/j.cnki.issn.1003-8035.2021.03-07
Jiawei WAN, Hongliang CHU, Bin LI, Yang GAO, Kai HE, Zhuang LI, Yihao LI. 2021: Characteristics, types, main causes and development of high-position geohazard chains along the Jiali fault zone, Tibet, China. The Chinese Journal of Geological Hazard and Control, 32(3): 51-60. doi: 10.16031/j.cnki.issn.1003-8035.2021.03-07
Citation: Jiawei WAN, Hongliang CHU, Bin LI, Yang GAO, Kai HE, Zhuang LI, Yihao LI. 2021: Characteristics, types, main causes and development of high-position geohazard chains along the Jiali fault zone, Tibet, China. The Chinese Journal of Geological Hazard and Control, 32(3): 51-60. doi: 10.16031/j.cnki.issn.1003-8035.2021.03-07

西藏嘉黎断裂带沿线高位链式地质灾害发育特征分析

doi: 10.16031/j.cnki.issn.1003-8035.2021.03-07
基金项目: 中国地质调查局地质调查项目(DD20211540)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    万佳威(1991-),男,江西南昌人,博士研究生,主要从事地质灾害研究。E-mail:wjw2018@cugb.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    褚宏亮(1981-),男,硕士,高级工程师,主要从事地质灾害防灾减灾研究。E-mail:52572706@qq.com

  • 中图分类号: P642

Characteristics, types, main causes and development of high-position geohazard chains along the Jiali fault zone, Tibet, China

  • 摘要: 西藏嘉黎断裂带沿线高位链式地质灾害十分发育,多次在易贡藏布、帕隆藏布及雅鲁藏布江下游造成流域性灾害链破坏,如易贡高位滑坡灾害链、古乡高位泥石流灾害链、尖母普曲高位崩塌灾害链、米堆冰湖溃决灾害链等。本文基于实地调研,并结合前人资料,总结了嘉黎断裂带沿线高位链式地质灾害的成灾模式,认为其可划分为“高位崩滑-碎屑流-堵江-洪水灾害链”、“高位崩滑-堵江-洪水灾害链”、“高位泥石流-堵江-洪水灾害链”、“冰湖溃决灾害链”等4种类型。本文还从地质构造与地震、地貌与水系、冰川、气象等4个方面分析了高位链式地质灾害的孕灾条件,并对其成因及发展趋势进行了探讨,认为在当前条件下,随着全球变暖加剧和人类工程活动增强,嘉黎断裂带沿线高位链式地质灾害的发生将更加频繁。
  • 图  1  嘉黎断裂带沿线大型~特大型高位链式地质灾害分布图

    Figure  1.  Distribution of the large-scale and mega-scale geohazard chains along with the Jiali fault zone

    图  2  高位崩滑-碎屑流-堵江-洪水灾害链剖面示意图

    Figure  2.  Sketch of the geohazard chain of high-position rockslide, debris flow, dammed lake and flood

    图  3  易贡滑坡形成区照片(摄于2019年8月)

    Figure  3.  A general view of the Yigong landslide.

    图  4  易贡滑坡堆积体航拍照片(摄于2020年10月)

    Figure  4.  Deposits of the Yigong landslide. Photo was taken on Oct. 2020

    图  5  高位崩滑-堵江-洪水灾害链剖面示意图

    Figure  5.  Sketch of the geohazard chain ofhigh-position rockslide, dammed lake and flood

    图  6  然乌湖口堆积体照片(摄于2019年8月)

    Figure  6.  Deposits of the Ranwuhu landslide. Photo was taken on Aug. 2019

    图  7  高位泥石流-堵江-洪水灾害链剖面示意图

    Figure  7.  Sketch of the geohazard chain of high-position debris flow, dammed lake and flood

    图  8  古乡泥石流沟中上游航拍照片(摄于2020年10月)

    Figure  8.  Oblique aerial view of the upstream of the Guxiang gully

    图  9  冰湖溃决灾害链剖面示意图

    Figure  9.  Sketch of the glacier lake outburst flood

    图  10  金翁错不同时间卫星影像(中国科学院空天信息创新研究院提供)

    Figure  10.  Satellite images of the Jinwengcuo glacier lake, obtained from the AIRI, CAS

    图  11  研究区及邻区地震Ms-T图(Ms≥4.5,1945—2020)

    Figure  11.  Ms-T diagram of earthquakes (Ms≥4.5) in the study area and adjacent areas, 1945—2020

    图  12  那曲、林芝、波密、察隅等气象站气温年变化

    Figure  12.  Annual average temperatures in Naqu, Linzhi, Bomi, Chayu

    图  13  那曲、林芝、波密、察隅等气象站降水量年变化

    Figure  13.  Annual precipitations in Naqu, Linzhi, Bomi, Chayu

    表  1  嘉黎断裂带沿线大型~特大型高位链式地质灾害事件[1-15]

    Table  1.   Catastrophic high-position geohazard chains along with the Jiali fault zone

    序号地质灾害名称发生时间堆积体规模/溃决库容/
    (104 m3
    威胁对象
    1然则日阿错冰湖溃决灾害链2013年7月1084~1559溃决洪水涌入尼都藏布,造成238户1160人受灾,
    并发生村民失踪
    2金翁错冰湖溃决灾害链2020年6月700溃决洪水涌入尼都藏布,威胁下游忠玉乡及附近村落,
    因预警及时未造成人员伤亡
    3培龙贡支高位泥石流-
    堵江-洪水灾害链
    1983年7月、1984年7月~8月、1984年10月、1985年5月~6月2073堵塞帕隆藏布,1984年造成6名行人死亡,1985年造成
    停于沟两岸的80辆大小汽车淹没
    4易贡高位崩滑-碎屑流-
    堵江-洪水灾害链
    2000年4月30000堵塞易贡藏布,两乡三厂(场)4000余人受灾,
    雅鲁藏布江下游有5万人无家可归
    5尖母普曲高位崩滑-碎屑流-
    堵江-洪水灾害链
    2007年9月、2010年7月、2010年9月、2018年7月76堵塞帕隆藏布,2007年造成1人死亡、7人失踪、9人受伤
    6古乡高位泥石流-堵江-
    洪水灾害链
    1953年9月,此后每年频发1100堵塞帕隆藏布,1953年造成140多人死亡
    7冬茹弄巴高位泥石流-
    堵江-洪水灾害链
    1961年、1963年7月、1975年6月15.5堵塞玉璞藏布,威胁下游玉普乡、松宗镇10余个村庄
    8米堆冰湖溃决灾害链1988年7月542溃决洪水形成泥石流堵塞帕隆藏布,
    造成多个村庄损毁,5人死亡
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-05-03
  • 修回日期:  2021-05-10
  • 刊出日期:  2021-06-25

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